Archive for the ‘Published Research’ Category
At the conclusion of the endurance testing we conducted a pressure test on the cell used.
The aim of this test was two fold.
- To find out at what pressure the HOH gas collapses back on itself
- Establish the burst pressure of the HOH Cell
We had hoped that the cell would endure for the first test, so the second could be conducted.
The following video footage was recoded with narration:
A simple, yet flexible Universal Cell Controller has been built to provide semi-automatic control over all types of cells.
The Universal Cell Controller has been constructed from readily available components, but is somewhat labour intensive to construct.
Designing a cell requires consideration of many things!
One of the first things is working surface area.
This is important as it defines many of the other aspects of your cells performance and design.
One such area of performance is water contamination, which is influenced by the following factors.
- Current Density (The amount of Amps per square area of your cell)
- Voltage or Over Voltage (Usually leading to the above)
- Material (Stainless Steel 316L) offering a relatively low cost alternative (L) = Low Carbon
- Water Quality, that type and level of minerals within the water.
Provided for you here is a Current Density Calculator, type in your specifics to gauge it’s performance characteristics.
Automatic current limiting has been on ongoing challenge for many of us running HOH / HHO cells and these guys might just have an economical solution:
Through the Association of Climate Technology Solution Association a trialing program has been initiated, if you would like to participate in this click here
If you test one of these devices, please share your experiences with us by leaving a comment.
DSF Fuel Saver Circuit #2 :: From Hydrogen Garage
Supplier Link and Information Source: http://stores.homestead.com/hydrogengarage/-strse-109/DSF-Fuel-Saver-Circuit/Detail.bok
Might be worth a look for $79.95USD
If you test one of these devices, please share your experiences with us by leaving a comment.
Commercial Alternatives – Uni-Power
General Information – (Specifications provided by uni-power on request)
These alternators can be provided in dual wound configuration, providing both the standard 12VDC supply and an isolated 120VDC output on the secondary.
The Uni-Power 3500 is designed to satisfy an increasing requirement for reliable and economical
The system which comprises of a Uni-Power alternator and a control module is capable of supplying
The Uni-Power 3500 was originally designed for the purpose of providing heating in mobile food
The current model provides chopped D.C. power which is fully regulated to 120V (+/-10%).
SPECIFICATIONS: Uni-Power 3500
POWER OUTPUT: 3,500 watt peak @8,000 alternator rpm
Many people (me included) have researched this and we always seem to be left with the question of “how”.
How can these results be duplicated with a high degree of predictability and “how” come some people are able to achieve results easily and others through exhaustive research and attempts cannot?
There are many dimensions to these questions and this information is dedicated to the truth “as we know it” and how you can take advantage of the thousands of hours of research and testing we have conducted to give you the greatest likelihood for success.
A great deal of information is published on the Internet for the use of these type of systems, including cell designs, electronic controls and efficiency gains. In the most part the majority of this information is incorrect either by mistake or even to mislead you.
We have personally tested many of these designs and electronics to find that there are many mistakes, untruths and dangers, which I believe some have been published to lay a false expectation of success which ultimately ends with discouragement, disappointment, equipment damage or personal injury.
Over the years we have responded to thousands of emails and taken hundreds of phone calls, many of which have simply been people like you who want to know more!
Today is about supporting you in this field of discovery, and the truth is, there is still much to be learnt, and re-learnt, but that should not deter any of us.
REMEMBER: This is an ongoing research and experimental project with our intention to provide you with all the information we can to ensure you are able to make informed and educated decisions about using this technology, the risks involved and advantages of its use. So let’s uncover and explore some of these for you
First things first! – What is a Hydrogen Oxygen System
On the surface this is quite a simple technology, where water is broken down in to its gas form Hydrogen and Oxygen then injected into the air intake of an Internal Combustion Engine.
The gas acts as a combustion aid (not a fuel) increasing the burn efficiency within the combustion chamber, burning more of the fuel present. This in turn reduces emission and provides you with extended mileage with the same amount of fuel.
As a supplement, it is operated by the a vehicles existing electrical power, provided by the battery supported by alternator. At reasonable efficiency, say 70%, 200 Watts of energy produces 1 liter of HOH gas per minute, giving us 60 liters per hour at 200Watt hours.
It is important to note that each engine, fuel system and fuel type requires more and less volumes of HOH to provide a quality outcome. More on this in a minute…
Typically no major modifications to the vehicle are required and systems occupy a relative small footprint, depending on the overall gas production rate and engine size.
A HOH supplementation system can be used with all types of fuels, including, Petrol, LPG, Diesel and BIO Diesel. It helps to keep the internals of your engine squeaky clean by removing carbon buildup and allows your engine to operate at improved efficiency.
The production of hydrogen gas is a simple well known process.
Many systems are currently inadequate in their design, materials and controls to manage the production, supply, durability and safety aspects of a commercial proper application.
The following has been established as a baseline to assess system capabilities and performance characteristics with the view of establishing minimum standards for the industry moving forward.
Use the standards to assess the various systems you find and determine for yourself their viability and usefulness
A “Printer Friendly” link is at the bottom of the page:here to edit this page.
System Components and Options
Flexibility is key when selecting a system for your specific application and as such the core cells come in 3 sizes:
In all sizes the amount of cells and voltage supply options are variable:
| Click in the
|160mm OD <=5 AMP||240mm OD <=20 AMP||315mm OD <=40 AMP|
|Cells||Volts DC||Cell A||
|6||13.2||0.3 LPM @ 5A||1 LPM @ 15A||2 LPM @ 30A|
|12||26.4||0.5 LPM @ 5A||2 LPM @ 15A||4 LPM @ 30A|
|60||132||2.5 LPM @ 4A||10 LPM @ 15A|
|* Production rates vary depending on eletrolytes and concentrations|
OEM, Production or Distribution Enquiry
The Generation 3 Cell
Bringing together lessons learnt from previous designs.
Following are some detailed assembly images showing each component of the cell and their construction order along with some video footage of the system in operation.this
The second generation of the HOH Cell was inspired by the teachings of Les Banki from the Climate Technologies Solutions Association.
I was invited by this group to share my media experience with ACA and found a wealth of knowledge and dedicated team of people working hard on HOH Systems.
I continued to attend these monthly meetings, listen, learn and understand the difficulties that were being confronted by this group.
After one of these meetings (late in the evening) I sat down with pencil and paper and continued to repeat to myself.
This is a gas intended for us through nature and nature has an innate ability to keep things simple.
The outcome from this thinking was the HOH G2. – A recirculated series cell.
This system was the first real insight in to the efficiency of the series cell design and was a departure and break-through from traditional series cell designs.
Here is a collection of images and drawings based on this design.
“Why aren’t these system readily available?”
Like many others I found some information on the internet on how to build a hydro-booster for my car.
The system was based on the details found here: http://waterpoweredcar.com/images/hydrobooster.pdf
Electrical – Standard Installation
There are a number of ways of establishing an electrical connection to operate your HOH Cell. In doing this a number of key factors must be considered.
- The HOH Cell must only operate when the car is operating
- It must stop when the vehicle stops.
- A safety manual override is essential
- Current limiting must be incorporated in case of current runaway
Objective of this information
To outline to the tools and minimum requirements for the electrical installation of your HOH Cell.
|Tools and materials required|
The information detailed here is the basic requirements to meet the criteria outlined in the Background Information, it should be easily installed my most mechanically mind people, though would cost little money to have an auto- electrician to do this for you.
Click image for larger view
Following is a detailed list of components
Effectively preventing a Flash-back event is of considerable importance for both your safety and to prevent damage to your equipment. Over the last two years we have invested considerable amounts of time, studying the flashback event to best understand how to prevent it in the first place and should it occur how to minimize its effect to ensure it is safely managed.
Background As a start, let have a look at some of the background information, so we can understand what were are working with. Firstly, lets look at the the flame speed.
Based on the research conducted by William Rhodes we know that the flame speed of this gas is:
SIX SEQUENCES: Recorded timing for 10 feet of tubing was consistent - 1.225 milliseconds = 10,000 ft in 1.226 seconds, or 8160 ft/sec div 1088 ft/sec (speed of sound not compensated for our 1150 ft above sea level) was mach 7.5
For those who have studied this gas closely know that this Propagation Rate is extremely fast, in fact 1000’s time fast than any other gas.
Secondly, in the absence of any other gases, meaning Hydrogen – Oxygen – Hydrogen in perfect ratio, like it is made, the gas collapses back into water creating a vacuum. Our experimentation has shown that this is a two stage process, where there is at first a large (sonic) expansion, then resulting in a vacuum.
Due to the Gas Propagation Speed, and the fact that oxygen is present with in the gas, hydrogen arrestors used with bottled hydrogen gas are unsuitable and too unreliable for use.
Water is one of the most effective way to prevent a flash-back, though this is dependent on the flame not being able to propagate between the bubbles. In order to maximise the drying effect, it is important to bounce the gas off as many edges as possible, similar to a labyrinth.
The more corners the gas is required to turn the dryer it becomes. As seen in the picture above, the gas is required to turn many times. Our testing showed that after five turns or level the gas would exit well dried.
In this picture you will see how the gas is able to move through the water via connect bubble streams.
In the early investigation a coil arrangement was setup, which was partly filled with water. As the gas moved through the coil it carried a small body of water in front of it until the surface tension was broken, allowing the gas to move past. As the gas entered the coil it carried water in sections, providing a water barrier between each stream of gas.
As seen in this picture the flame is arrested depending on where these stream was broken.
Gravity was used to push the water back down the coil once it has broken away from the gas flow.
From a design point of view this is very impractical for the following reasons:
Building Gas Drying and Arresting Systems
Development of Electronic Logic
- Automatically regulate supply voltage to maintain cell within design parameters (prevent current runaway) or preset level (more/less gas)
- Sense water levels and automatically refill when system levels are low.
- Detect changes in engine load via the MAP sensor and increase / decrease gas flow to the engine
- Intercept O2 sensor signals and modify to prevent over fuelling
- Periodically drain Gas Drying systems to remove build up of moisture
- Regulate gas production based on maximum pressure settings
The design of the integrated electronic control module has taken over 12 months development and testing to reach the proof of concept phase. The electronic controls have been developed using an off-the-self programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Although not perfect for the application the PLC has provided enough functionality to be able to complete all of the proof of concept works.
Testing of the PLC and programming variation were conducted over periods of up to one week, where the cell was left operating continuously for this time.
All functions preformed well, allowing the cell to remain with-in working temperatures and pressures, whilst keep the water within the cell at it optimum level.
Schematic of PLC
Mixing the Caustic Soda
Balancing your system to operate at the most appropriate amperage can be a bit tricky, so I’ve detailed for you here the process I use to assist with this.
REMEMBER: CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH, Sodium Hydroxide) is nasty stuff. Eye and Skin Protection should be worn when working with this chemical and please be sure to refer to the Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) before using. Here is a link for your reference http://www.physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/SO/sodium_hydroxide.html
Here is a detailed step by step guide:
The vehicles alternator provides the power source to operate the HOH Cell.
Many larger vehicles have heavy duty alternators that can operate at continuous amperage of 60 AMPs or more and in the trucking area this can be as high as 180AMPs, though 120AMPs is typical. In most vehicles the alternator produce 12-14VDC output which makes them ideal for the 6 Cell unit.
Once larger capacitites of gas is required the amperage needs to double in 15AMP increments for every litre of gas per minute. As this continues up to around 4 litres per minute (60AMPs) this tends to take most alternators to their limits.
Investigation in to high performance alternators has been carried out with the view of establishing an appropriate means to produce high output alternators that can provide the normal power to the vehicle’s systems, whilst at the same time produce up to 120VDC which is the legal limit in Australia for mobile power generation.
High voltage alternators and the associated devices connected need to be properly identified with shown warning label
Numerous alternators have been tested, with some standard alternator being modified to produce higher outputs:
Following is an overview
As part of our continued research in the HOH as a combustible gas we have been exploring the possibilities of improving the energy density of the gas through water charging.
This is a simple and in-expensive process of slowly charging water in two containers separated by what is known as a salt bath. To date we have no firm evidence to suggest that the energy density in the gas has been improved and testing is continuing on this front, with the exceptions of a few moments in time, which can be explained statistically.
What has been identified is that through slowly charging water the pH level can be raised, which in turn reduces the need for heavier electrolyte concentrations, which is a good thing. So far our testing has shown that simply charging water overnight increases the pH by 1 (from 7 (standard water to 8, more alkaline). Continued charging increases this even further.
By using the charged water we have been able to reduce the concentration of NaOH (Caustic Soda) by a factor of 2 and reduced the slight contamination that occurs in the system through minerals in the water even further.
These two areas alone are well worth experimenting with, as they have considerable advantage to Hydroxy Generators at large.
Pictured is here is a basic schematic of the setup.
How much gas does the system produce?
170-200 Watts (depending on electrolyte and concentration) for each litre per minute, Operating range up to 1.5 litres per minute. The Cell is designed to run for long periods of time at 1 litre per minute. Operating the HOH Cell on higher levels for long periods will reduce the operating life of the cell, and increases particle build up within the fluid.
How many AMPS and Volts does the HOH cell require?
The voltage with most automobiles is 13.8V, therefore the HOH cell has been designed for this voltage. The HOH cell has a starting current draw of 10 – 12 AMPS and will continue to climb in current draw over time up to 20 AMPS unless limited.
How efficient are the HOH cells?
Depending on how the efficiency is calculated simplified of fully expressed, with simplified being the most common form used through the published information on the internet, the efficiency of our commercial cells are around 80% depending on the concentration of electrolyte used. Industrial grade hydrogen generators struggle to reach 50% efficiency (fully expressed). These outstanding efficiency results are related to our innovative cell design.
How is the cell connected electrically with the vehicle?
The HOH cell is connected to the battery of your vehicle through a relay, this ensures that it only operates when the vehicle is running. It is recommended that the trigger for the relay be the oil pressure switch, which turns the cell on when the engine has had a chance to start. The HOH cell should always be installed inline with a 25AMP fuse or circuit breaker.
What are the dimensions of the unit?
The HOH cell measures 22.5 cm in diameter and 7.5 cm across. The Electrolyte Reservoir typically measures 26 cm tall by 10 cm diameter and can be reduced in height.
What other equipment is required?
An electrolyte reservoir is the only other essential item, this container holds the water and electrolyte and provides a safety barrier to the HOH cell in the unlikely event of backfire or flashback. The larger the electrolyte reservoir the less often you will need to refill with water. The Electrolyte Reservoir has been designed to provide 15 continuous driving hours.
What is Electrolyte and why is it needed?
Electrolytes are either an alkaline or acid which changes the conductivity of the water and makes the electrolysis process more efficient.
What kind of electrolyte should I use?
We recommend and use Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), alternatively Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) can be used. Sodium Hydroxide is slightly less efficient than Potassium Hydroxide though Sodium Hydroxide is not consumed in the electrolysis process and easier to purchase from a local supermarket “Caustic Soda”.
What concentration of Sodium Hydroxide should I use?
Sodium Hydroxide in the most part comes premixed in water in concentrations of around 48.5%, or in crystal form by mixing the solution with 50% water provides an overall concentration of around 25%. Crystal form Caustic Soda is mixed by proportions based on weight. Concentration levels from 5%-25% can be used and should be adjusted to reach to required operating current draw. Varied concentration of the electrolyte with alter the efficiency of the gas production. Using a concentration of around 10% will provide a soft start around 10AMP, which then rises to 15AMP within about 10 minutes and stabilizes around 20AMP.
Can the Sodium Hydroxide harm my engine?
Yes, high levels of concentrated NaOH within the engine will promote rust and damage to alloys. Considerable effort has been put into the design of the Electrolyte Reservoir to reduce these levels to trace amounts, therefore making it safer to use with your engine. It is recommended that an upper valve lubricant product like Flash Lube is used as a precautionary measure.
Where can I get Sodium Hydroxide?
Sodium Hydroxide can be purchased through most chemical supply companies in liquid form, and in crystal form Caustic Soda through the supermarket. Sodium Hydroxide is usually much more easily obtained than Potassium Hydroxide. Be careful to ensure that Caustic purchased from the supermarket does not contain other chemicals or elements.
What type of water should I use in the HOH Cell?
Distilled or Demineralised water is ideal, this is available at most supermarkets. Normal tap water depending on the quality is often suitable for use too.
Can I use the HOH cell on water only?
Yes, by doing this will reduce gas production dramatically, though in certain applications may still provide enough gas to make a measurable difference. We recommend that when you first install your HOH Cell to run it on water only for the first week or so. This will help condition the cell and provide you with the opportunity to ensure your system is water tight before the alkaline is added.
How much water will the HOH cell use?
At 100% volumetric efficiency, 1 litre of water produces 2065 litres of HOH gas. Therefore given a gas production rate of 1 litre per minute the electrolyte reservoir holding two litres, then the cell would operate for 4130 minutes or 68 continuous operating hours. 100% volumetric efficiency is not a practical guide as this does not account for evaporation, condensation or less than 100% volumetric efficiency, therefore we recommend that you check your water level every few days if you are driving long distances daily and once every one or two weeks for casual use. In general, depending on the concentration of electrolyte and the total litres per minute will vary how often the water will need to be refilled. At 1 Litre per minute of gas production, 1 litre of water will last for approximately 15 continuous operating hours.
Can the HOH Cell be operated under vacuum?
Yes the system is designed to work under vacuum, in fact gas production is inversely propitiated to pressure, the more pressure the less the gas. It is not essential that the system operates under vacuum though it does help in a variety of other ways. By drawing air (under vacuum) through the cell helps keep it cool, it helps to remove the gas bubbles from the electrode surface and possibly improving gas quantity and it also helps increase the overall concentration of HOH gas in the system.
Can the gas be stored?
Yes the gas can be stored safety under low pressure, though in the HOH cell this is not required as the HOH gas is made on demand.
What happens if the HOH cell runs out of water?
This is not ideal as it may cause scum build up within the cell itself. In the event of the cell running out of water, they simply stop functioning as the water level reduces so does the conductivity and in turn the electrolysis process.
What fuel systems will the gas work with?
The HOH cell will improve the efficiency of all Hydrocarbons, this includes petrol, LPG and diesel including bio diesel. Higher efficiency gains are achieved with petrol and LPG as diesel is already quite efficient. Using the HOH cell with bio diesel will improve the combustion level of the fuel and help keep the internals of your engine clean.